When this occurs, the fuel is loaded into casks that are stored in a dedicated onsite installation, known as an Individual Interim Storage Facility. The casks used in Spain for interim storage are made of metal or concrete and metal.
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The installation has concrete walls and roof, and it is able to accommodate up to 80 dual-purpose casks for storage and transportation. This facility has been constructed on the site of the plant and has been designed for the dry storage of all spent fuel unloaded from the reactor.
Its construction was essential to the dismantling of the plant. It consists of a slab of reinforced concrete supporting 16 storage modules, enclosed by a simple exterior fence system for radiological protection the area beyond this fence is classified as a free access area and an interior physical security fence delimiting the storage area.
This Interim Storage Facility houses 12 modules loaded with spent fuel and 4 extra additional casks containing the most highly radioactive metal pieces from the segmentation of the reactor internals.
Spent Fuel Storage
This installation has been constructed on the site of the plant designed for the dry storage of the spent fuel unloaded from the two reactors. It consists of two storage-module slabs of reinforced concrete with capacity for 16 storage modules per slab. It is enclosed by a simple exterior fence system for radiological protection the area beyond this fence is classified as a free access area and an interior physical security fence delimiting the storage area. This facility will provide temporary storage for all spent fuel and high level waste from Spanish nuclear power plants.
The decision to store these materials in a single location was based on a December Resolution by the Congressional Commission on Industry, which urged the Government, in partnership with Enresa, to develop criteria for establishing a centralised storage facility for spent fuel storage and high level radioactive waste in Spain. An Interministerial Commission, created in and composed of representatives of the principal ministries, was assigned the task of establishing the criteria to be met by the site for the CTS and its Associated Technology Centre.
From the beginning of , Enresa has been working on the characterisation of the site for the CTS and the detailed design of the facility. After this time, the radioactive material will be removed for subsequent management and the facility will be dismantled, as with any other nuclear facility at the end of its operational life. There is extensive global experience in the operation of this type of facility. The technology employed in each interim storage system varies from country to country, some using pool storage and others dry storage casks, vaults, etc.
Dry storage technology using vaults, as used in Spain, has been licensed and implemented for several years in other countries such as the United States, France, United Kingdom, Hungary, and the Netherlands. It is located in the industrial area of Vlissingen-Oost, in the south west of the Netherlands, alongside companies from other sectors. The CTS will be a dry storage surface facility, ensuring the confinement of these materials by means of a multiple-barrier system. This passive system facility, with a modular and reversible design, will allow the removal of the spent fuel and high level waste for subsequent management once the operational life of the facility is at an end.
Security of Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel – WINS
In this way, it will enable separation of the different stages of management. The CTS will centralise all necessary processes for the interim management of all the spent fuel that, until now, has remained at the nuclear power plants, either in pools or in supplementary dry cask storage systems. The centralisation of these materials facilitates safety and surveillance. It also enables optimisation of the resources required for their monitoring. The integral management of spent fuel and high level waste will facilitate the dismantling of Spanish nuclear power plants as they reach the end of their operational life.
The buildings and installations that make up the nuclear facility fall into two groups, differentiating between those which are located inside the protected area within the double security fence , which are subject to the requirements of the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities , and those which are located outside the protected area beyond the double security fence , which are not subject to this regulation.
Here transport vehicles carrying casks of spent fuel, special waste, and canisters of vitrified waste are received. Here the various mechanical processes for preparation of the casks are undertaken checking, removal of covers , in two separate lines for spent fuel and canisters of vitrified waste. This building will also be used for unloading the casks, temporary storage of fuel assemblies and encapsulation of spent fuel in the hot cell, as well as its removal. A group of twelve storage vaults will be built in three phases - Phase 1 Vaults , Phase 2 Vaults and Phase 3 Vaults These twelve vaults will enable the storage of spent fuel and canisters of vitrified waste in a total of one thousand four hundred and forty 1, storage pits or tubes.
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R&D Quick Hits
Need more than one copy? Not a Member? This standard is not included in any packages. Other cask designs orient the steel cylinder vertically on a concrete pad at a dry cask storage site and use both metal and concrete outer cylinders for radiation shielding. Currently there is no long term permanent storage facility; dry cask storage is designed as an interim safer solution than spent fuel pool storage. Some of the cask designs can be used for both storage and transportation.
A similar system is also being implemented in Russia. However, it is based on 'storage compartments' in a single structure, rather than individual casks. In the late s and early s, the need for alternative storage in the United States began to grow when pools at many nuclear reactors began to fill up with stored spent fuel.
As there was not a national nuclear storage facility in operation at the time, utilities began looking at options for storing spent fuel. Dry cask storage was determined to be a practical option for storage of spent fuel and preferable to leaving large concentrations of spent fuel in cooling tanks. Spent fuel is currently stored in dry cask systems at a growing number of power plant sites, and at an interim facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission estimates that many of the nuclear power plants in the United States will be out of room in their spent fuel pools by , most likely requiring the use of temporary storage of some kind. The NRC guideline calls for fuels to have spent at least five years in a storage pool before being moved to dry casks. The industry norm is about 10 years. As of the end of , 13, metric tons of commercial spent fuel — or about 22 percent — were stored in dry casks.
With the zeroing of the budget for Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada, more nuclear waste is being loaded into sealed metal casks filled with inert gas. Many of these casks will be stored in coastal or lakeside regions where a salt air environment exists, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is studying how such dry casks perform in salt environments.
Some hope that the casks can be used for years, but cracking related to corrosion could occur in 30 years or less. Company videos, covering the processes and remote handling, from the initial fuel loading to the removal and eventual dry-cask storage, are viewable on various video hosting domains. In Canada, above-ground dry storage has been used. Ontario Power Generation is in the process of constructing a Dry Storage Cask storage facility  on its Darlington site, which will be similar in many respects to existing facilities at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Bruce Nuclear Generating Station.
A centralized storage facility using dry casks is located at Ahaus. CASTOR ca sk for s torage and t ransport o f r adioactive material is a trademarked brand of dry casks used to store spent nuclear fuel a type of nuclear waste. Its inner and outer layers are steel, enclosing a layer of concrete. The structure of the facility is made up of monolithic reinforced concrete walls and top and bottom slabs, with the actual storage compartments formed by reinforced concrete partitions.
The fuel is to be cooled by natural convection of air.