Figure 7. The structure location of Jiaoshiba area modified from Guo Xusheng, In exploration development process of gas field, shale gas exploration technology series were preliminarily formed: firstly, in theory research aspects, we make clear marine shale gas enrichment mechanism and high yield controlling factors; secondly, in earth physical technology evaluation and forecast aspects, we formed fast qualitative recognition measuring well integrated evaluation technology and seismic integrated forecast technology   ; thirdly, we formed shale gas drilling and completion well key technology.
Sichuan basin Southeast area belongs to the deep-shallow shelf sedimentary environments. Regional deposition has a larger thickness of dark rich organic matter mud shale . The graptolite class biological type is most flourish, and consequent bedding enrichment stratification; we can see more siliceous radiolarian fossils in graptolite shale in the bottom of Long maxi group deep shelf faces, with concentration gradually decreasing from bottom to top.
Longitudinal upper part of Long maxi group is main for a near shore shallow grey, grey silt-bearing mudstone, and central developed a shallow shelf facies grey-deep grey mudstone and the sheet siltstone, and silt-bearing mudstone, lower for a deep shelf dark grey-black carbon graptolite shale, and carbon- bearing silty mudstone, and containing spicule radiation insect pen stone shale  - . Drilling results fromJiaoye1 well and other 4 wells showed that, the rich organic matter of mud shalein Jiao shiba area is located in lower Long maxi group, the plane distribution is stable, the thickness is between 80 - m; the quality mud shale is located at the bottom of Long maxi Group shale, the thickness is between 38 - 44 m Table 3 , the high quality rock is charactered by pure of lithology, little siltstone, high carbonaceous component, enrichment of graptolite, and development of lamellation joint.
Dynamic Well Testing in Petroleum Exploration and Development : HuiNong Zhuang :
According to the Jiaoye 1 well test results of core sample analysis, the shale of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formationare charactered by high TOC content, well organic matter type, moderate degree of thermal evolution, high brittle mineral, good physical property, high gas content Table 3 , Figure 9. TOC content in 0. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that brittle mineral contents are between Figure 8.
Table 3. Analysis and comparison table of test data about thickness, gas content, oil and gas shows of the shale gas reservoirs in Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation of Jiaoye 1 - 4 wells in Fuling region.
Figure 9. Secondly dominated by plagioclase and dolomite, averages of which are 7. Reservoir porosity is between 1.
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Total gas production in Jiaoye 1 well is between 3. Gas content distribution of 4 wells total are in the 3. Fuling gas field is the typical self-production and self-storage, continuous, mid-deep formation, and low geothermal gradient, high pressure gas reservoir. Average buried deep in the medium gas units is m, and average geothermal gradient is 2.
Dominated gas. Table 4. Statistics on pressure and temperature of shale gas of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation in Fuling Shale gas field. It is characterized as top-quality dry gas reservoirs Table 5. Thorium potassium TH-K stack collection can be used to qualitatively recognize clay minerals: the more separation of the two, the higher the clay mineral content.
The thorium uranium ratio can be used to classify deposition environment: less than 2 indicates strong restore environment, 2 - 4 indicates half restore-strong restore environment; the lithology density value divided rich organic matter shale layer section, is less than 2. By applying petro physical properties volume models, and statistical methods, we established explanation models for mineral components and contents, physical parameters, chemical parameters, gas content parameters, geomechanics parameters under geological constraints.
It has an important support role for exploration and production. We established model for mineral content and porosity models based on element capture logging ECS and the mixed matrix density. For complex mineral composition and pore structure of shale gas reservoir, the research innovatively proposed new method to calculate the mineral content and porosity, which improved interpretation accuracy, and formed shale gas reserves of well logging fine interpretation and calculation support.
Based on elements capture logging ECS to calculate the mineral content, mixed grain density porosity and high precision, the relative error is between Unlike conventional oil and gas reservoirs, shale gas has its own characteristics and geophysical parameters of low sensitivity of reservoirs. After obtaining major breakthroughs of shale-gas exploration in Jiaoye 1 well, Sinopec for the first time had long-spread wide-azimuth high-coverage of three-dimensional seismic data acquisition of shale gas in , covering an area of km 2.
Through the acquisition, processing and interpretation, it formed a shale gas field evaluation of seismic exploration technology.
We carried out focused research on TOC content, thickness of shale, pressing-ability evaluation, gas content, fracture prediction and so on of marine facies shale gas, effectively for ecastedzones with high quality fracturing and where fractures developed, providing strong support for the exploration development and well deployment. Figure Crossplot of TOC by core analyses and density by logging. Crossplot of total gas contents measured on site and density by logging.
Table 5. Sectional view of the TOC inversion through Jiaoye 1, 2, 4 well. According to more well of regression analysis, we determined coefficient: a, b, c, d, and e, and formed earthquake prediction technology basing on multi-element model of brittleness index, achieving shale section of space prediction and evaluation of compressibility, improving the accuracy of prediction of fracturing quality, providing technical support for trajectory control of horizontal well Figure The key to calculate the total gas content of shale gas reservoir is based on reasonable regression of gas loss in field sorption method.
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Currently, the most commonly used linear regression method does not match the desorption rule for shale with high pressure and large buried depth, so the study established the Fuling polynomial regression loss recovery method Figure Through analysis of foreign comparative test examples, this approach is closer to holding core test gas. Calculating method of shale gas include static and dynamic types.
Based on currently containing gas determine of two species methods site determination total containing gas; using isothermal adsorption test determine single molecular layer adsorption gas and containing gas saturated, and porosity, and rock density, and volume coefficient calculation formula determine free gas , through research we have formed two types ofstatical calculation methods and the key parameter determine method, in domestic first carried out shale gas reserves calculation work. The new methods revealed similar results with dynamic geological reserves estimates method, reserves calculation parameter and the method are widely recognized by evaluation team.
Both of surface and underground geologic conditions of Marine shale in Fuling district are complicated, and a set drilling and completion techniques which can be used to support the exploration work effectively, was formed to match the characteristics of this region through tackling key technical problems. Shallow gas safety. Model for calculating loss gas by polynomial curve regress.
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Fracturing technology above can realize the fracture network, and the control range is big, so it can provide an important guarantee of high yield and stable yield for shale airflow, and also laid a technical foundation for deep shale gas fracturing and mining technology. Attention to foundation, optimize selection are the precondition of shale gas exploration and discovery.
It is really importance to emphasize the basic research work in exploration and discovery of southern Marine shale gas field. The potential shale gas resources in China are vast; it has many similarities with the gas-bearing shale in North America, which have been commercially developed. But it still has its own particularity. In southern China, it has experienced multiphase tectonic reworking, so the evolution degree is high and the accumulation condition is complicated.
As a result, we cannot simply copy available theory and exploration technique from North America.
Successful Tweneboa‑4 appraisal well
The characteristics of shale gas from different areas and different formations should be specific on the basis of solid foundation, and the generality of the shale gas exploration and development of business that can be implemented should be summarized. Only in this way can it lay a good foundation for shale gas exploration in later stage of evaluation, and this can get twice the result with half the effort.
To establish an effective evaluation standard and system, and carry out the optimization selection work are the premise of shale gas exploration and discovery. Exploration of southern marine shale gas should use shale quality as foundation, preservation conditions as core and economy as the purpose, so that we can evaluate marine shale gas in southern district more effectively, and achieve a great breakthrough of shale gas exploration. Following the principles, innovation thinking is the key of shale gas exploration breakthrough.
Although China is rich in shale gas reserves, its development potential is huge, and it has obtained a breakthrough in development, shale gas exploration still has to follow the basic principle of oil and gas formation. Contamination may also be removed and fluid samples collected.
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This helps to allocate individual flow rate contributions, but the method has uncertainties. Flow rate, water cut, GOR and other parameters for the test system can deviate from production separators.
Another method  to obtain individual well flow rates takes the state observer approach, where the states to be estimated as the unknown flow rates from individual wells. This approach allows the incorporation of other modes of measurements such as spin-cuts manual water cut readings and dynamometer card based inferred rates. The reconciliation of these measurements with the flow tests, along with a systematic mechanism to account for measurement noise, leads to improved per well rate estimation accuracy.
Multiphase flow meters have to some degree reduced the need for flow tests and test separators, hence reducing production loss during testing. However, in the absence of accurate, robust and low-cost multi-phase flow meters, large oil fields with s of wells continue to rely on well tests as the primary source of information for production surveillance. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the oil well test. For the performance testing of water wells, see water well test. The lease pumper's handbook PDF. Norman, Okla. Atkinson, B. Theuveny et al. Spring While the last few years have seen a number of innovations, it is clear that limitations still remain.
Many wellheads, for example, remain without instruments, and technologies such as portable test separators often tend to be very manual-focused. Too many technologies also are adopted on an ad hoc basis without looking at the bigger field-wide picture as well as taking into account specific field variables. Any successful well and production testing strategy must be process-driven using a dynamic, loop-based process where well production is tracked from the wellbore to the separator.
Information is then seamlessly fed back into the reservoir model for real-time reservoir management and improved well and production planning. For this to be achieved, each technology component has a key role to play within an integrated framework that not only delivers real-time information but takes into account the very specific characteristics of each field.
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Surface test separators and their ability to separate fluids into water, oil, and gas phases comprise the first level of a typical well and production testing configuration. In certain environments, however, such as where there are commingling or long pipelines, or in heavy oil, where fluids tend to separate poorly due to small density differences, multiphase meters — both topside and sub-sea — are playing an important complementary role, improving accuracy and providing reference measurements to be compared to those from test and production separators.
It is these multiphase meters — topside and closer to the wellhead subsea — that comprise the second and third levels of an integrated testing strategy and can be placed in a number of locations from the platform to the wellhead, retrievable choke bridge, jumper, or the manifold. Multiphase meters do not require phase separation, negating the challenges caused by differences in density and allowing for continuous multiphase measurements in real time.
In addition, through the detection of changes in multiphase composition at the subsea wellhead, rising water cuts can be immediately detected and addressed. It is through a leveraging of its expertise in both separators and multiphase meters that Emerson has developed intelligent separator architecture that can operate the multiphase meters, manage well test results, and perform well allocation calculations based on these results. It is this kind of functionality that is part of an integrated approach to well and production testing.
The new system helps asset teams bring focus to the wells that need attention; reduces unwanted shutdowns; and combines virtual metering, network modeling techniques, and engineering calculations to provide a robust well allocation system and improved real-time reservoir management. Another key challenge in well and production testing today is the ability to incorporate greater automation and intelligence into activities, minimize equipment requirements, and test different wells simultaneously.