Using this method will allow model description to be treated as noise reduction or model reduction without having to bother, for example, with solving many partial di? This monograph will propose a new and easy method which produces the same results as the method treated in the reference. As proof of its advantageous e? The new and easy method is executed using the algebraic calculations without solving partial di? For our purpose,manyactualexamplesofmodelinformationandnoisereductionwill also be provided.
Using the analysis of state space approach, the model reduction problem may have become a major theme of technology after for emphasizing e? Significant results can be obtained comparing the time required to complete each test and the relative mean velocity. Table 5 and Table 6 summarize these values for all the tests listed above. To better understand, the tests have been divided into two groups: simple paths and more complex paths.
Table 5 concerns the first three tests whose lengths and complexity are comparable, while Table 6 concerns the more complex paths, whose comparison is more difficult because of the variability of straight paths, curves, and U-turns among tests.
First evidence is that, test by test, the athlete becomes more and more confident with the system; in fact, looking at tests 1, 2, and 3 performed without using the earmuffs, the time required for the complete path gradually reduces and the mean velocities increase. Then, analyzing tests 1 and 4, which are the same path but performed respectively without and with the passive noise-reduction earmuffs, two evidences can be highlighted.
On one hand, as expected, the time increases and the velocities decrease because the athlete cannot use his hearing anymore and consequently he is slightly more hesitant; on the other hand he is still able to walk quite fast and without bumps, meaning that he can satisfy achieving tasks exclusively using the EM guiding system. A similar comparison can be carried out between tests 3 and 5. Moreover, comparing all the tests carried out with earmuffs, tests 4—7, it is evident that the mean velocity tends to increase, with the only exception of the last test, probably because of its extreme complexity and the exhaustion of the person who was operating the mobile unit.
This means that the user, even completely isolated from the surroundings and after a very short training time to become confident with the new technology, is able to perform any unknown path. In particular, using the white cane the athlete needed to walk following a reference, repeatedly looking for the contact with the ribbon defining the perimeter of the room. The resulting path is depicted in Figure 15 as a pointed line: the curves became right angles, the movement insecure and hence the time required for a complete lap is extremely long about s if compared with those required to perform the path of type 1 with or without earmuffs.
On the other hand, using the EM system proposed, the user is able to gradually walk along the curves, with a good fluidity of movement. The research activity described in this paper has investigated the possibility of realizing a system able to let a visually impaired user to run autonomously. Therefore, the novelty of the paper lies on the smart use of well-known EM technologies and theories for a new field of application. For a first step, laboratory instrumentation and homemade antennas have been used to set up the system and preliminary tests have been carried out with a blind end-user.
The encouraging results obtained demonstrate how the EM guiding system is able to actually let the blind volunteer walk autonomously and pave the way for the design of an optimized system. The research activity presented in this paper wants to contribute to the reduction of limitations that visually impaired runners have to face during training or competitions.
The MATLAB Realization of Toning up Digital Image Based on Wavelet Transform
To this end, EM technologies have been used to demonstrate the actual possibility of supporting blind runners without the presence of a sighted guide. The system has been set up mainly using laboratory instrumentation and homemade simple antennas, its capabilities have been demonstrated by tests carried out by a blind volunteer with encouraging results.
It is our belief that such a system can pave the way for the realization of optimized and smart devices, based on EM technology, to support the autonomous mobility of people affected by visual diseases. For example, navigation in indoor environments represents a highly challenging task for the severely visually impaired that stimulates the interest of many research activities [ 19 , 20 ]. In this context, interesting opportunities may arise in joining EM technology and assistive robotics: autonomous mobile robots could be adapted to work as assistive robots, realizing an automated system able to guide a visually impaired subject along desired paths in complex indoor environments such as airports, stations, or hospitals.
The authors want to thank the Paralympic champion Andrea Cionna for his invaluable collaboration as an end-user and his willingness to reach the important results of this research activity. Pieralisi designed and realized the slot array, V. Petrini designed and realized the electronic devices, V. Di Mattia designed the patch antenna and wrote the paper, G. Manfredi supervised the numerical tool, A.
De Leo performed the RF measurements, L. Scalise performed the measurements and the test with the blind volunteer and revised the paper, P.
From Concept to Realization
Russo implemented the electromagnetic model and revised the paper, G. Cerri supervised the research activities and revised the paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
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Journal List Sensors Basel v. Sensors Basel. Published online Jul 8. Find articles by Marco Pieralisi. Find articles by Valerio Petrini. Find articles by Valentina Di Mattia. Find articles by Giovanni Manfredi. Find articles by Alfredo De Leo. Find articles by Paola Russo. Find articles by Graziano Cerri. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Jun 3; Accepted Jul 2.
Digital Filter Design and Realization
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Nowadays the technologies aimed at improving the quality of life of people affected by visual diseases are quite common; e. Keywords: electromagnetic sensors, aid for visually impaired athletes, antenna design. Introduction In the world, million people are estimated to be visually impaired: 39 million are blind and have low vision [ 1 ]. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.
Experimental Section 2. System Description The EM guiding system consists of a transmitting unit to be placed on a mobile structure running in front of the user and a receiving sensor worn by the athlete. Figure 2. Transmitting Unit The transmitting subsystem is responsible for signal generation and radiation. Figure 3. Waveguide Length L 1 Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6.
Figure 7. Figure 8. Table 2 Radiation parameters of transmitting antennas: comparison between calculated and measured values. Receiving Unit The receiving unit has the important role of communicating with the athlete. Receiving Antenna In order to satisfy the requirements of a lightweight and compact device, the antenna proposed is a small patch of four elements. Figure 9. Figure Table 3 Dimensions mm of the geometrical parameters of the receiving antenna. Table 4 Radiation parameters of receiving antenna: Comparison between calculated and measured values.
Signal Processing Unit The antenna output is connected to a demodulator and an analog circuitry for the detection of the two-channel intensity levels.